Luigi Rolando1773–1831

Fissure of Rolando

If the description of the Sylvian fissure seemed surprisingly late (1641), then that of a fissure as prominent as Rolando’s is more remarkable from that point view. Rolando’s work on which it was based was published in 1825, and his name was linked to it in 1839. It is also called the central sulcus and it separates the parietal and frontal lobes, as can be seen in the illustration dividing Rolando’s portrait. In an earlier (1809) treatise on the structure of the human and animal brain Rolando discussed cortical localization and the functions of the cerebellum. The former was contemporary with the works of Gall and Spurzheim and the latter preceded Flourens ablation studies. He also stimulated the brain with electric currents and concluded that voluntary functions of the body were under cerebral control whereas the cerebellum controlled involuntary functions.